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By Robert Justin Goldstein

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The first index of prohibited books published by the Catholic Church was issued in 1539, and similar lists were published by governments, including the English (from 1529), the French (from 1545) and the Austrian (from 1754; until then the Church had controlled Austrian censorship). The Austrian index of 1765 ran to 184 pages in small type and listed 3000 forbidden books, including works by Hobbes, Hume, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Boccaccio, Rabelais, Swift, Lessing and even King Frederick the Great of Prussia.

In most countries of nineteenth-century Europe, at least until the franchise was extended to the poor, the lower classes bore overwhelmingly the largest share of the burden of taxation, which was generally heavily levied on essential consumption items such as salt and bread, and filled the ranks of the armies - in most countries until after 1870, the wealthier classes were either formally exempt from the draft or could buy a substitute if they were selected. Thus, in Spain throughout the nineteenth century, anyone who was rich enough could buy out of the draft, with the result that over 30 per cent of Spaniards drafted by lot in 1862 escaped induction.

L. Snell has written of the period 1878-90, when socialist organisations were outlawed in Germany, 24 Political Censorship in 19th-Century Europe Front organizations were created in the form of singing clubs, smoking societies, scientific study groups or gymnastic associations. As soon as one of these could be determined to be socialistic and was banned, the police complained, it would reappear as a new organization with a new name. .. Secret meetings were held in forests or small villages near large cities, while others were open picnics attended by hundreds of persons wearing red ribbons or carrying flowers.

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