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By Lucan Way

Concentrating on regime trajectories around the former Soviet Union, Pluralism through Default posits that political pageant in "new democracies" has usually been grounded much less in well-designed associations, democratic leaders, or rising civil society and extra within the failure of authoritarianism. Lucan method contends that pluralism has continued in lots of situations simply because autocrats lack the association, authority, or coordination to thieve elections, impose censorship, repress competition, or hold allies in line. recognition to the dynamics of this "pluralism through default" unearths a mostly unrecognized contradiction within the transition method: a similar components that facilitate democratic and semi-democratic political pageant can also thwart the improvement of solid, well-functioning democratic associations. nationwide divisions or susceptible states and parties—typically noticeable as impediments to democracy—can additionally stymie efforts to crack down on political competition and focus regulate. means demonstrates that the good points that experience made Ukraine the main democratic kingdom within the former Soviet Union additionally contributed to the country’s severe disorder and descent into battle in 2014.

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Party organization is obviously not inherently autocratic. However, such organization may greatly enhance regime closure by reducing conflict within the ruling coalition—conflict that is often a central source of democratic contestation in countries that lack other constraints on authoritarianism. ”64 While partly justified by constitutional and regulatory reforms undertaken throughout the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, this focus on the liberal state has encompassed only part of the state building process.

74 Absent tight bonds of trust, or non-material ties among top regime elites and security forces,75 regime allies tend to be risk averse and avoid taking responsibility for large-scale violent actions that invite international sanctions, prosecution, travel bans, and frozen bank accounts. In such cases, autocrats are often unable to motivate police to engage in consistent, large-scale repression over a long period of time. A spectacular example of this dynamic occurred in Ukraine in 2014 when the relatively well-funded Ukrainian security services remained loyal and cohesive for nearly three months of large-scale protest but dissolved as the government began to fire on crowds in the center of the capital (see chapter 3).

This book explores the sources of pluralism in countries “without prerequisites”10 for democracy through an exploration of post–Soviet11 regime trajectories since 1991. 12 In particular, I compare three neighboring countries on the western border of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Without democratic leadership, strong civil societies, or democratic histories, all three countries initially experienced highly competitive political regimes with open media, powerful legislatures, and democratic transfers of power.

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