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Invisible enemy : the African American freedom struggle - download pdf or read online

By Greta de Jong

This account of the evolution of yank racism outlines how colorblind techniques to discrimination ensured the perpetuation of racial inequality within the usa way past the Nineteen Sixties. it's a chronicle of the evolution of yank racism, its perpetuation, and black people's struggles for equality within the put up civil rights period. It offers scholars with a greater knowing of the stories of black Read more...

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Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954). The ruling had implications for other discriminatory practices and offered further encouragement to local protest activities across the nation. Members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) deployed nonviolent tactics such as sit-ins and boycotts to assert black Americans’ right to equal treatment in the 1950s. In Montgomery, Alabama, African Americans engaged in a year-long boycott of the city’s segregated buses that gained national media attention and elevated Martin Luther King Jr.

Contrary to assumptions that racially segregated neighborhoods reflected people’s natural preference for living among those who look like themselves, the spatial structure that characterized many American communities in the 1930s was a relatively new phenomenon. In the nineteenth century housing was integrated in both the North and the South. White employers needed their black workers close by and scattering African Americans throughout cities instead of concentrating them in one area helped to minimize the threat of slave rebellions.

Excluding large numbers of people from participation in the consumer society deprived businesses of an important market and undermined the economic health of the nation. All of these factors lay behind President Johnson’s declaration of an “unconditional war on poverty” in January 1964. The president’s first State of the Union address outlined plans to expand economic development efforts in depressed areas, initiate youth employment programs, strengthen the social safety net, and provide affordable housing for low-income families.

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