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By Roberto Alejandro

This booklet sheds new gentle at the query of democratic politics via presenting a hermeneutic perception of citizenship and the general public sphere. while, it offers a critique of the postmodern arguments complex by means of Richard Rorty, Jean-Francois Lyotard, and Jean Baudrillard. wondering a dominant interpretation that sees Gadamer's hermeneutics because the expression of a conservative venture, Alejandro argues that it comprises a big component of critique that can problem dominant buildings and practices.

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The private is either a space of comprehensive philosophical, religious, or moral doctrines, and, as such, is a place of diversity and incommensurability (Rawls), or a dimension where citizens are allowed to form and pursue their substantial conception of the good life (Larmore). The public, by contrast, is the realm where "intuitive ideas" pave the way for a consensus on justice (Rawls) or an arena of "neutral principles" which allow the state to justify its policies in the light of neutral grounds (Larmore).

Authors like Charles Taylor, Michael J. Sandel, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Benjamin Barber, among others, criticize the liberal paradigm for different reasons. 17 Both have different arguments and emphases on similar problems. Yet it may be argued that both suggest a vision of citizenship: the liberal argument tends to define the citizen as a bearer of rights, and communitarianism tends to see him as a situated individual whose moral identity is provided by his community, and whose duty is to see the nation as a project which is worth preserving through active participation in the political sphere.

In his philosophy, the concept of right is not something to be given by political or religious institutions. It is something placed inside the individual by virtue of his being a moral agent. This means that the right does not depend upon contingent considerations, but rather, it is given by the law of reason and, more importantly, it is accessible to all individuals. The commonest intelligence can easily and without hesitation see what, on the principle of autonomy of the will, requires to be done; [ .

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